Cemented pipe drilled into the well to seal off fluids and to keep the hole from caving in.

Completion Process
The steps taken to transform a drilled well into a producing one. This includes casing, cementing, and installing a wellhead or production tree.

A naturally occurring organic compound composed of hydrogen and carbon, which can occur as gases, liquids, or solids. The most common hydrocarbons are natural gas, oil, and coal.

A set of oil or gas accumulations that share similar geologic or geographic properties, such as source rock or hydrocarbon type.

A porous material such as sand or ceramic beads used in hydraulic fracturing to ensure that newly-created shale fractures remain open. A typical well uses between 300,000 and 500,000 pounds of proppants.

A geological formation that contains large quantities of oil and/or gas.

A fine-grained rock composed mostly of consolidated clay or mud that settles to the bottom of formation.

The drilled hole used to reach underground supplies, including the shale rock.

piece of equipment mounted at the opening of the well to manage the extraction of hydrocarbons. It also prevents the leaking of oil or natural gas out of the well.